Tag Archives: graduate school

How Undergraduate and Graduate School are different

Several jobs ago, I wrote up a chart that laid out how undergraduate study and graduate school are different.  It’s surprising to me how many undergraduates I talk to think that grad school is just a bunch more classes at a higher level.

Here’s my original comparison chart:

Many courses outside the field are required as general education requirements. Classes are the sole means of evaluation for graduation. Students complete an in-depth study of one field and enter into an extended research apprenticeship with a faculty member.  The primary means of evaluation for graduation is a research project or thesis, judged by a faculty committee.
Students may remain enrolled and continue progress on their degree even if GPA falls below a 3.0. Minimum GPA for continuing enrollment is a 3.0.
Most courses are very large. Four years of coursework are completed.  Involvement with faculty is largely at the initiation of the student. All courses are small, and involvement with faculty is direct and extensive.  Usually only one year of coursework is completed.
Students finance their own education.


Students receive tuition support and stipends that pay most of the cost of their education.
Students are expected to work independently and produce high quality results, as measured by a GPA. Students are expected to work independently and produce high quality results, as measured by research, publication, and presentations judged by senior peers.
You learn what is already known. You learn to create new knowledge.

Graduate school admission is actually admission into a community of scholars.  If research is what you do, scholarship is how you think about it.  Sure, graduate school is focused on independent research.  But the work of a scholar also means stepping back from your data, building connections between theory and practice, and communicating your new knowledge effectively.

Part of why graduate school is so stressful relates to the differences listed above between undergraduate and graduate study.  As an undergraduate, the emphasis is on knowing the answers, and getting stuff right on tests.   As a graduate student, you don’t know the answers. No one knows the answers.  That’s why it’s a research problem!  But to a student that’s been trained for 4 years as an undergraduate to regurgitate the “right answer” on exams, this transition to not knowing can be really difficult.

To make it even harder, the story of research is a story of failure.  You will fail a LOT in grad school.  You’ll discover that your apparatus should have been built a different way, that a lightning storm knocked out power and your DNA samples thawed, that you should have laid out your plots differently, and that you just plain screwed up on something. Again and again and again.

Because undergrads that go to graduate school are typically high-achieving successful types, this constant failure can be shocking.  You are doing something for the first time. No one really knows how it should be done, so it’s OK if you fail, as long as you learn from it.   And, frankly, the story of LIFE is the story of failure.  Being able to persist when things don’t go your way, and figure out a Plan B (C, D, E…..) is an important life skill.

The last difference I’ll point out is about stress. As an undergraduate, there are short periods of high stress when there are exams, and stress mostly comes from sources external to you. In graduate school, the test is every day, 24/7.  The main source of your stress is…you.

Your thesis can begin to feel like a bastard love child that you can’t stand to have anyone else criticize and that takes over your life.  You can go from doing a happy data dance around the lab to feeling like you’ve made a colossal mistake by going to graduate school.  You’ll suspect the Academia Police are going to come and toss you out for your stupidity at any minute. This cycle from high to low can happen within a period of a couple hours on any given day.

Feeling like an imposter is a classic graduate school malady.  It wasn’t a mistake they let you in. You’ll be fine, especially if you know what to expect.

Expect graduate school to be radically different than your undergraduate experience.  You’ll love it.


Did the PhD Kill the Masters Degree?

Should you do a MS or a PhD? Does it matter?
And why is the Master’s becoming more rare as an option?

Over the years I’ve been in Academia, I have seen the number of students completing Master’s degrees dwindle steadily. I think this is a bad thing from the viewpoint of student development–but it is understandable as something driven by market forces and the structure of tenure.

A Master’s degree is intended to do two things: to prepare you to be a professional in a disciplinary field, and to learn how the tools of that field are used to solve problems.   Master’s come in lots of different sizes and flavors; they may or may not complete a research thesis, and sometimes complete a practicum.   A Master’s does not always have to lead to a PhD; in the past it was viewed as a terminal degree in its own right.

A PhD is a long research apprenticeship in which a student is expected to create new knowledge, including creating new tools and techniques and broadening the knowledge base of a field.  PhD students are expected to perform original research with minimal supervision.  It is not meant to be vocational or career-related training, as I have addressed elsewhere.

The problem is…over time a lot of things have changed from that basic system.
Somehow, a PhD and an academic professorial job became the only acceptable choice.   For both MS or PhD graduates, taking a job in “the real world” is seen as “selling out” or “settling.”  Even though the vast majority of people with graduate degrees work outside of Academia, there is an odd bit of denial on the part of faculty about that fact.

Master’s degrees are described in a lot of really revealing ways by academics:  as a “consolation prize” for students who can’t finish their PhD program. Students who just want a Master’s are told “You are smart enough for a PhD”, or that “you can’t get a job with just a Master’s.”  You see the implication here?

Less than.

Our current model of PhD student training produces Doctorates that are trained for jobs that….don’t really exist anymore.  Very few PhDs are going to be a professor at a Tier I research institution (and, fewer and fewer PhDs *want* to do that as a career!).   So, if what is needed by employers are people that understand research, but are primarily problem-solvers, that’s a pretty good description of a Master’s.

The Professional Masters of Science is a new program that is career-oriented, and breaks away from the traditional PhD/Thesis model of academia.  It combines business classes and leadership training with advanced coursework in a particular science or math discipline and project-based research.  For someone that wants to work in industry or government, it’s a great choice. A Master’s should not be looked down upon, but valued as a different path with value of its own.

Why is there such a push to skip the Master’s and go direct to a PhD? 

Simple return on investment.  Faculty get more return for their time and money on a PhD Student.  Master’s students do not produce as many papers as PhD students (or PostDocs). Their work on practicums won’t count as evidence of productivity for tenure and promotion.  Because Master’s projects typically run 2 years, they aren’t as fundable by national agencies (NSF, NIH) as a PhD.

You can pay a Master’s student’s tuition and living costs with a Teaching Assistantship, but that still leaves the issue of funding their research.  That can be a considerable expense, especially for the hard sciences.   Masters just don’t fit into the Grant/Publishing cycle that we now use to evaluate and run academia.

Right now, most students entering science graduate schools are routed directly into PhD programs.  Think about that for a moment.  At the age of 21—often with no employment experience outside academia—students will chose the research topic that will set the primary focus of their future research career.

Your PhD dissertation is your first major branding statement as a new professional:  “Bug Girl works on female-female competition in pheromone systems.”   That’s been true for me for over 20 years, and directly relates to what I did my dissertation on.  You had better make a good topic choice, because that dissertation is the base upon which you launch your career.

From a student-centered perspective, the Masters First –> PhD Second Path makes WAY more sense than direct to PhD from a Bachelors.  A Master’s lets a student complete a smaller thesis project, and learn HOW research is done, from planning to communication.  They know more about the field, the top players, and the hot topics than they did as an undergraduate.  When it’s time to make that choice of dissertation advisor and topic, it will be a more informed choice.

A Master’s can be a really important first step towards stretching a student’s research legs, if you will.  We are asking them in a PhD program to run a science marathon. Why would we not want them to go into training ahead of that event?

So–how do we balance what is good for the student, and what is good for the faculty mentor?  I don’t have an answer, unfortunately, and as long as funding for universities is in flux, I expect faculty will continue to route students toward PhDs.

For some undergraduates who were involved in undergraduate research, this isn’t a big deal.  I work with students that are smarter than me all the time.  Those kids will go straight to a PhD and be fine.

But not all students–for many different reasons–have the experience or confidence to jump straight into a PhD program.  There are many worthy students that need a little extra time and patience to grow as scientists.

My own Master’s degree was one giant string of research disasters, and yet somehow I still produced a useful bit of science that helped reduce the number of pesticide sprays on a fruit crop. I also had quite a few existential research crises that led me to try to drop out of graduate school at least 4 times, and each time my thesis advisor patiently talked me down.  I would never have made it as a straight-to-PhD student.

When I did get to the PhD program, I had grown enough confidence to take the project I was initially offered in a whole new direction after my first year’s preliminary data.  I had the courage to push back against my advisor and committee–and I’m really glad I did, because I found some cool stuff that was MINE in a way that would never have happened if I hadn’t gained confidence in myself by doing a Master’s first.

Academia is a world where your research is your identity (and your value).  It’s important to make a good choice, and an informed choice. You can do a better job of that if you’ve completed a Masters, IMHO, but that varies from person to person.

And let’s stop talking about a Master’s degree as a sign of failure, and value it as a career-building step.  Not everyone has to follow the same path for the path to be a good one.

External Resources:

Choosing a Graduate Program and Advisor

While data are incomplete, estimates put the number of people who enter graduate school, but don’t complete a degree, around 44%Let’s ponder that for a moment.

Nearly half of students admitted to PhD programs, some of the smartest and most motivated folks on the planet, will leave their program without a PhD.

Not a lot of research exists on why students leave graduate school, but what data there are suggest that about 30% of students “drop out” in the first two years of grad school.  They generally seem to leave for one of three reasons:

  • Their graduate program wasn’t right for them
  • Their advisor wasn’t right for them
  • The life of a graduate student wasn’t right for them

I wrote earlier about having the right motivation for deciding to go to graduate school, and how that will improve your experience.

In this post I’ll give you some advice on how to try to identify programs and advisors that are good matches for your interests so you can get what you came for.  If you can make an informed choice about the three factors listed above, your odds of completing your degree in a timely fashion should go up.  More importantly, you will enjoy getting your degree a lot more, and will get more out of it!

Choosing a program: Dollar Bill, Ya’ll

Ok, maybe Coolio isn’t the first thing that pops into your mind when you think about graduate school. But he’s right that money makes a difference; and the good news is that as a graduate student in the sciences, you should be offered a graduate assistantship of some sort, which comes with a stipend.  In exchange for that money, you’re supposed to work for 20 hours/week as either a teaching or research assistant.

You also usually receive a tuition waiver so that you don’t have to pay out of state tuition.  Let me repeat that, since it is something that a lot of students let limit their choices.  Most graduate students are offered an in-state tuition waiver, or total tuition waiver, as part of their graduate stipend.

There is a lot of variation in how much additional support graduate students receive; some get full employee health care benefits, some don’t.  If possible, get information about the financial support you’ll receive in writing.  A lot of students struggle with financial issues in graduate school; 80% of students surveyed in a doctoral completion project said that financial support was key to their success. When evaluating graduate programs, ask questions about money!

Choosing a program: Go Forth and Network

Many graduate programs will pay you to fly out and visit if you are a student they are interested in–or at the very least, they will find you a free place to stay when you visit.   The single most important thing you can do on a visit to a prospective graduate program is to talk to current graduate students. They will tell you the truth about what the climate in the department is like for graduate students, how well grad students are integrated into the life of the department, and what it’s like to live in that area.

It is especially important for students of color and women to check out the departmental climate. Multiple studies have found that these groups have a tougher time in predominantly male, white departments.  This is why in-person visits to departments are critical. Your mentor doesn’t need to look exactly like you for you to be successful; but you do need to feel like you’ll be treated equitably and that you are welcome.  You can best assess the departmental climate for yourself with a visit.

A new trend in many lab science departments is to have “rotations.”  Students are admitted to the department, but don’t have to pick a thesis advisor right away.  They go on a round-robin visitation cycle where they spend 10 weeks or so in different labs they are interested in joining.  This is a great way to learn more and really see the management style of someone before you commit yourself to 6 years with them.  Make sure to ask if this is an option.

Choosing a research advisor (and thesis topic)

The relationship you have with your PhD advisor will be one of the single most important relationships you will have in your life, both professional and personal. It will last longer than most marriages.  Just like getting married, don’t commit to a PhD advising relationship without putting some time and thought into it!

A recent paper surveyed graduate students to find out what they thought was an ideal graduate advisor. Here’s the (condensed) list:

  • Creates structure for labs, meetings, and communication
  • Offers support regardless of student’s career choices
  • Makes time for students
  • Sets high standards
  • Increases challenges as students develop
  • Doesn’t let students flounder
  • Encourages independent thinking and work
  • Encourages attending conferences, writing papers and grants
  • Reflective of one’s own advising style.

That last bullet is the kicker; you need to know something about yourself and how you like to work to be able to make a good choice of an advisor.  How do you like to be managed? Hands-off or hands-on?  Do you need to have deadlines set for you, or can you work without them?  What environments have been successful for you in the past? Getting a sense of the work style of your potential advisor is critical.

Once again, visit and talk to potential advisors in person. Then, talk to their graduate students and post-docs.  Use the characteristics I listed above to frame your questions for the students to get a read on the faculty member’s management style (or lack thereof).

Academics talk about “pedigrees” of graduate students as though they were prize show dogs.  Who your “academic sire” is carries a lot of weight.  There are a lot of good reasons to choose a big name; there are a lot of equally good reasons to not choose someone who is famous.   Usually it’s a tradeoff.  The big dogs have big labs with lots of students, post-docs, and money.  You may not get a lot of face time with Dr. Big, but you will be in an environment that has a lot of activity and opportunities.  The shiny aura of Dr. Big may help open doors for you later….but it’s also possible that people think Dr. Big is a tool. Not everyone who is famous is also well-loved.

On the other hand, if you want a slower, more personal experience, choosing a less well known faculty member might be a better choice for you.  Funding may not be as abundant, but if you know that you want  a more supportive, structured experience, smaller can be better.  The importance again is on gathering as much information as you can so you can make a good decision.

Making the decision to become a Grad Student

Once you’ve done all the things I’ve told you to do above:  Listen To Your Gut.
(Sorry that I don’t have a quantifiable formula for this decision, but guts seem to do a very good job of helping you sort things out.)

If you talked to an advisor, and they seem nice, but for some reason you’re hesitating….Listen to that.
Is this someone you can work with for 6 years? (average time to a PhD)
Is this someone who will help you transition out of being a student and into a working professional?
Is this someone who will take your phone call 5 years after you’ve graduated and need advice about a job offer?

You also want to be excited about your proposed dissertation topic or area.  If your response to a proposed research topic is “Meh”….listen to that too.

I like PhD Comics (Piled Higher and Deeper), but I think his take on graduate school is awfully pessimistic.  There is a lot of truth there, though.   You’ll have ups and downs.  Make sure that you distinguish between the funny feeling in the pit of your stomach that says “OMG I’m about to start something huge” and the kind that says “OMG working with this faculty member will be a disaster.”

It’s normal to feel a little pants-staining terror at the prospect of 6 years of hard work.  But it should also inspire you and excite you, because you will uncover new knowledge that no one in the world but you knows.

External Resources:


Welde, K., & Laursen, S. (2008). The “Ideal Type” Advisor: How Advisors Help STEM Graduate Students Find Their ‘Scientific Feet’ The Open Education Journal, 1 (1), 49-61 DOI: 10.2174/1874920800801010049
Ülkü-Steiner, B., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Kinlaw, C. (2000). Doctoral student experiences in gender-balanced and male-dominated graduate programs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92 (2), 296-307 DOI:10.1037//0022-0663.92.2.296

Should I do a PhD?

I get this question a lot.  “Should I do a PhD? I want to work in _____.”  I get it so much, in fact, that I thought I’d turn this into a post, and let others chime in.

My answer is usually “No”, and here’s why:  A PhD is NOT a vocational degree.

NEVER get a PhD because you think it will improve your job prospects.   PhDs are trained to do research in an academic setting, for the most part. And that is….not, frankly, where the majority of jobs are.  You will be disappointed and frustrated if you think getting a PhD will make getting a job “easier.”

Pursue a PhD because you love science, or because you have a burning question about a topic that you want to investigate further.    Do it because you want to push your limits, and create new knowledge.  In the sciences, you should expect that you will receive financial support in the form of a graduate assistantship, so a PhD is something that you do for yourself.  Do a PhD if you like having your mind stretched, exploded, occasionally stomped, and then re-assembled into something wonderful and new.

Yes, it would be nice if the Academy would get with the program and make PhDs more aligned with the current job market.   Tiny bits of management training are being added here and there.  But for the most part, there is a reason everyone dresses up in funny robes with capes and poofy hats when you graduate–it’s because academia is firmly rooted in the past.

It may seem like all the jobs advertised require PhDs, but that is an optical illusion.   Advertising costs money.  Organizations only pay money to advertise jobs that are difficult to fill, or that are at a level where you are required to advertise them to attract a certain candidate pool.  PhD level jobs are advertised, not Bachelor’s level jobs.

The Return-on-Investment of advertising for a Bachelor’s level job just isn’t there like it is with a PhD, so organizations just post BS positions on their websites or locally.  You end up with the appearance of more jobs at the PhD level when you look at journals or major job-posting sites–but it isn’t reality.

If you look at 2006 NSF data for people involved in Research and Development–where you would expect a lot of PhDs to end up–you see that they are just  a small slice of this pie.

The other thing to remember is that if you are looking at want-ads, or online advertisements, you are using the least efficient method of job searching.  Surveys of new hires by the Department of Labor consistently find that around 50% of people got their jobs because they knew someone.  People hire people they already know, or that their colleagues know.

If I have a postdoc, or a summer research position, I’m going to talk to grad students and friends I know already, because they are a known quantity.  I’m going to hire someone who is the best personality fit for the job.  I can train them to do anything technical that they might not know.  It really is who you know, not what you know.

It’s most important to me, as an employer, to have someone who can work well in a group and that is reliable.  You might be brilliant and have degrees from the Ivy League, but if you piss everyone off around you and can’t communicate for shit, you are worthless to me.

This is why graduate students (and undergraduates too!) should be focusing on making connections and building a professional network rather than searching for job ads. Blogging is a great way to do that, as long as you don’t focus exclusively on flaming people.  (What?? Do as Bug Girl says, not as she does.)

Going to professional meetings and interacting with others in your field is crucial; volunteering is also an important way to make connections in some fields.

Here’s a good way to see if you are on the right track:  Think about how much time and energy you invest into getting laid.  The mental imagining of what it will be like with person X; time spent building relationships on the possibility of some future putting-out;  the trying-on of clothes and shoes; the mental debates about whether a pint of Ben and Jerry’s now is better than maybe a boyfriend later when you’re thin.
How much total time and energy is that?

Is that comparable to the amount of time you are spending on planning your career and job hunting?  If not, you may need to re-examine your priorities.  (Or, I suppose, fuck really well-connected people.)

I loved my graduate work, and graduate school was one of the best times of my life. I spent 4 years literally crawling around on my hands and knees in North Carolina, focused on solving really interesting research questions and exploring insect behavior. I had wonderful friends, and I drank a lot of beer.  Please don’t think I’m saying don’t go to grad school!

Just go for the right reasons, and don’t expect a PhD to solve all your job hunting problems.   You will get paid slightly more, On Average, with a PhD; and your chances of being unemployed with an advanced degree are lower, On Average, than for someone with no degree or a BS.  But it’s not a path to easy fame and riches.